JAKARTA– Try asking the benefits and dependence of housewives on plastic bags. Not only housewives, almost all shopping activities in the market, roadside food vendors, and retail businesses in supermarkets use plastic bags as the dominant wrapping tool.
The dependence of the Indonesian people on plastic bags is indeed high. The policy of paid plastic bags at modern or self-service outlets which had been tested in 2016 alone could not have a major impact on pressing the consumption of plastic bags.
The government policy at that time was only based on the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK) Circular General Management of Waste, Waste and Hazardous and Toxic Materials (PSLB3) Number: S.1230 / PSLB3-PS / 2016 concerning Price and Mechanism of Application of Plastic Bags Paid, only occurs in a matter of months, namely February 21, 2016, until October 4, 2016.
The existence of this policy is not a wrong step. The government needs to seek all ideas or ideas to overcome the use of massive plastic bags and usually disposable.
In the presentation of the Directorate General of Waste Management, Waste and Hazardous Toxic Material of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry written by Tuti Hendrawati with the title “No Free Plastic Bag Policy” in the same year, it was estimated that three plastic bags were used in each sale and purchase transaction.
If it is assumed that there are 100 transactions per day, for one outlet the plastic bag used reaches 300 plastic bags measuring 20 cm x 30 cm. Then if the number is multiplied by 100 outlets, in one year the production of plastic bags in supermarkets reaches 10.95 million. If stretched, the area reaches 65.7 hectares or equal to 60 times the width of a soccer field.
Not to mention if it is based on the number of outlets of the Indonesian Retail Entrepreneurs Association (Aprindo). The Ministry of Environment and Forestry noted that APRINDO, which has 32 thousand outlets, produces 9.6 million pieces of plastic bags per day, equivalent to 21,024 hectares per year.
KLHK estimates that in one year the number of bags of 32 thousand modern retail outlets can be equated with 68 times the weight of the A380 Air Bus or 353 times the volume of the Borobudur Temple. Well, even more so if the count is linked to about 90 thousand modern outlets throughout Indonesia, it would be estimated that there are 9.85 billion pieces of plastic bag waste produced every year.
Waste plastic bags themselves based on KLHK data ranks four out of ten types of garbage in the sea. Garbage plastic bags reach 1,019,902 pieces, below the plastic bottle that reaches 1,065,171 pieces.
It should be noted, the type of plastic bag rubbish if left to be dumped into the sea, the garbage can only be destroyed in the next 20-30 years. In 2009 alone, Southern California, the United States, was forced to pour in as much as the US $ 1.7 million to maintain waterways from the pollution of excessive plastic waste.
Meanwhile, based on Jambeck’s research in 2015, Indonesia is the second-ranked country in the world to produce plastic waste into the sea. Indonesia’s per capita plastic consumption in the form of garbage at sea reaches 187.2 million tons of waste.
Choose a Crackle Plastic Bag
Because of this big impact, it became natural for the government to try to suppress the consumption of disposable plastic bags. Moreover, based on the results of a survey conducted by the Thorough Careful Research Team of 553 respondents in the Jabodetabek area in May 2018 it was found that only 14% of respondents always carried their bags when shopping. And, as many as 37% of respondents claimed to sometimes carry their shopping bags. The problem is, as many as 49% of the other respondents never brought their shopping bags because the bags were given free of charge by the cashier.
The majority of respondents, namely as many as 58%, also claimed that they reused the plastic bags that they brought from their shopping only once. Allegedly its use for wrapping household waste. The remaining 42% use two or more times.
The high dependence of the community on plastic bags can also be seen from the results of questions relating to the paid plastic bag program. Because when the program was implemented, 166 respondents (30%) answered that they still used crackers, and only 22% stopped using crackle bags when shopping.
Thorough Research Vision Researcher Sita Wardhani said the survey conducted on consumers showed that the majority of consumers still chose to use a plastic bag, even though it was paid. In general, he said, the price that makes respondents no longer want to use a plastic bag, if the plastic bag is sold is Rp1,000.
“So if the government implements a paid plastic bag for Rp 200 back or below, then the likelihood of excise duty (the plan to apply the plastic excise tax rules in July 2019.red) to reduce the consumption of plastic bags will not be achieved,” he explained.
In addition to seeking information from the consumer’s point of view, the Thorough Research Vision was also carried out for traders who trade in traditional markets. The reason for this plastic bag is not only circulating in modern stores, but also traditional markets and informal traders. Even the circulation of paid plastic bags maybe even more common in these traditional traders.
Similar surveys were conducted on 44 traders in traditional markets spread in Jakarta, Depok, Tangerang, Bogor, and Bekasi. The question that was asked to the first trader was if the price of the crackle bag rose 80% from before. This figure of 80% increase refers to Law No. 39 of 2007 article 5, that the imposition of the highest excise is 80% of the retail sale price.
The result turned out that only 34% were willing to charge the price to their consumers, and the rest, as many as 66% of traders claimed they would continue to sell their goods as usual and free their plastic bags.
To the traders who answered that they would still eliminate the crack bags, Thorough Research Vision also asked a few additional questions. As a result, the traders continue to state that even if there is a legal basis that gives them the right to sell the crackle bags 82.9% of them will still free the crackle bags.
Meanwhile, when asked whether they would impose an increase in the price of cracked bags by increasing the price of the goods they sold, only 35.3% said they might do so. However, the majority of traders (64.7%) will still eliminate crackdowns and will not increase the prices of their products even though the price of the plastic bags they buy increases.
The concern of traders to impose the price of a bag of crackers on consumers is understandable. They are faced with the behavior of people who are long addicted to plastic bags.
The statement of Secretary II of the Indonesian Association of Environmentalists, Lina Tri Mugi Astuti, also agrees with this plastic bag. He stated that the use of plastic bags per individual averaged around ten pieces per week.
He also estimates that the use of plastic bags cannot be reduced. To overcome the consumption of plastic bags, innovation is needed.
“But we can start with reusing or recycling plastic. Organic plastic material is indeed just about to begin. Socialization is still needed, “said Lina.
Data Collection Problems
Ironically, during efforts to overcome community dependence, the government claimed not to know the exact number of plastic bag commodity companies. Kasubdit Plastik Director General of Chemical Downstream Ministry of Industry (Ministry of Industry) M Taufik said his side had difficulty in specifically registering plastic commodity companies, especially related to plastic bags.
The latest data from the Ministry of Industry related to the number of plastic bag commodity companies is from the 2014 population data. There, the number of plastic bag commodity companies is around 100 thousand.
Even so, from the official Kemenperin.go.id data page regarding the directory of industrial companies, the number of plastic bag companies is only 171 companies. All plastic commodity companies from the data are located in the West Indonesia region with spread on Java and Sumatra.
The Ministry of Industry said that it had not been able to renew the number of plastic commodity companies because it had to first verify with the Investment Coordinating Board (BKPM) and also the plastic association.
Whereas on the other hand every company or business making plastic bags must also comply with existing regulations. If without permission, said Taufik, the players could be convicted.
“Regulatory is required to report company licenses, only then can they be produced. As long as they have not received a permit, they cannot produce, it is prohibited, “said Taufik to Validnews in his office, South Jakarta, Wednesday (7/6).
Taufik said the other data collection constraints were because only large business permits were handed over to local governments and the central government. So far there is only data from large medium companies owned by BKPM. Meanwhile, the issuance of small industrial business licenses with an investment value of between IDR 5 billion and IDR 10 billion is carried out by the regional government.
“The small ones don’t exist at BKPM, they are in the regions. It’s a little difficult to detect, “he said.
He said that so far the plastic bag players were only asked to have import business licenses to meet the raw material requirements when making production. Entrepreneurs in this field are also exempt from the rules of the trade when involved in sending raw materials from abroad as long as they establish communication with suppliers outside Indonesia.
“After they agree, a transaction can be made. After the goods arrived here, they were subject to import duty, subject to VAT, that was what they had to pay to the importer, “he said.
He said, currently one of the big players in plastic bags is PT Panca Budi Dana with a production of 33 thousand tons per year. The amount of production is still far from the plant’s capacity to reach 47 thousand tons per year.
Generally the production of plastic bags is separated into three different types, namely plastic bags (shopping plastic bags), both white packaging bags are used to wrap food, and finally, there are plastic sacks.
“So, the bags are plastic bags. Only the type is different, “he said.
KLHK Director General of Waste, Waste and Harmful Toxic Materials Rosa Vivien Ratnawati said that the plastic use guidelines are currently contained in Presidential Regulation Number 97 of 2017 concerning National Policies and Strategies for Household Waste Management and Household Waste.
Rosa said that plastic is currently not using non-organic plastic. This is unfortunate because various findings related to organic plastics or easily destroyed plastics have experienced many innovations.
The issue of producing plastic bags is also said by the Secretary-General of the Indonesian Plastic Industry Association (Inaplas) Fajar Budiyono. He stated that the raw material for plastic bags is not bio-degradable, but is degradable.
“Because there are two degradable, bio, and non-bio. Oxium, this is conventional plastic or scientifically the plastic bag is HDPE (High-Density Poly Ethylene). Then added a kind of additive called oxium which functions as an oxidizer, “said Fajar.
In a certain period, the content is estimated to be degraded to a small size to protect the environment from plastic waste pollution. (Denisa Tristianty)